How do Rich & Poor vote?

Gelman et al. (2007) show that answer to this question depends on where you live..

“..income matters more in red America than in blue America. In poor states, rich people are much more likely than poor people to vote for the Republican presidential candidate, but in rich states (such as Connecticut), income has a very low correlation with vote preference..

As seen in graphs below high income/education respondents tend to vote Republican. However, the magnitude (and sometimes direction) depends on where people live and what political era (election cycle) or Race we look at. 

Note: Keep track of sample sizes when using filters. 

American National Election Studies (ANES Time Series, 1948–2012). Data can be downloaded from

Patterns are not as clear at the County level but the general intuition in Gelman’s book still manifests (e.g. slope of Voting & County Income varies significantly by geography). Data used is for the 2012 presidential election. 

Red State, Blue State, Rich State, Poor State