American National Election Studies (ANES)

Since 1948, the American National Election Studies has conducted national surveys of opinion and voting behavior of the electorate in the United States. The survey is administered biennially during presidential and congressional election years.   The consistency in the questions asked across years enables researchers to track changes and trends in public opinion over time.  Opinion can also be related to personal characteristics such as income and education,  allowing study of how opinion varies with socioeconomic characteristics.


  1. Social and religious characteristics of the electorate
  2. Partisanship and evaluation of the political parties
  3. Ideological self-identification
  4. Public opinion on public policy issues
  5. Support for the political system
  6. Political involvement and participation in politics
  7. Evaluation of the presidential candidates
  8. Evaluation of the congressional candidates
  9. Vote choice